Clean URLs in CodeIgniter and Drupal for Debian based Dedicated Servers

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Initially, when my projects were in CodeIgniter I struggled to find out the solutions for Clean URLs. Now, I am working on Drupal CMS and the process for activating Clean URLs are similar as in CodeIgniter.


1. The first step is to add the following code in your .htaccess file.

<IfModule mod_rewrite.c>
RewriteEngine on

# Rewrite URLs of the form 'x' to the form 'index.php?q=x'.

RewriteCond %{REQUEST_FILENAME} !-f
RewriteCond %{REQUEST_FILENAME} !-d
RewriteRule ^(.*)$ project_dir/index.php?q=$1 [L,QSA]

2. Next, for Debian Linux OS edit /etc/apache2/sites-available/default file and add the following script.

<Directory "/var/www/project_dir/">
RewriteEngine on
RewriteBase /
RewriteCond %{REQUEST_FILENAME} !-f
RewriteCond %{REQUEST_FILENAME} !-d
RewriteRule ^(.*)$ project_dir/index.php?q=$1 [L,QSA]

3. If you are using CodeIgniter, the above two steps are done but for Drupal sites, visit the following link from your Drupal CMS Admin: http://your_site/admin/settings/clean-urls. Select the Enabled radio button & click on save.

Congratulations, You have activated Clean URLs for your websites.

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Apache is running a threaded MPM, but your PHP Module is not compiled to be threadsafe. You need to recompile PHP.

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After installing Apache2, MySQL & PHP on Debian wheezy 7.1, I tried to reboot the apache server. It showed me the following error.
Starting web server: apache2[Fri Dec 27 11:29:16 2013] [crit] Apache is running a threaded MPM, but your PHP Module
is not compiled to be threadsafe. You need to recompile PHP.
Pre-configuration failed
Action 'start' failed.
The Apache error log may have more information.

So I searched through the internet to recomplie the PHP Source. But none of the tutorials were best and feasible.

Finally, after long try I found the command below that helped me to run the apache and PHP along.
apt-get install apache2-mpm-prefork

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Exporting & Importing individual MySQL table command line

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Exporting Table

The following command syntax will export individual MySQL table from the Database:

$ mysqldump -u root -p db_name tbl_name > sql_script.sql


Importing Table

The follwoing command syntax will import individual MySQL table to the Database:

$ mysql -u root -p db_name < sql_script.sql


Both of the above command will prompt password for the root user.

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How to detect a DOS / DDOS Attack on your Linux Server?

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While researching through website traffic problems, the first thing that came in my mind is DoS / DDoS attacks. So, I started to study about it.

What is DoS / DDoS attack? 

(Wiki Answer) : In computing, a denial-of-service attack (DoS attack) or distributed denial-of-service attack (DDoS attack) is an attempt to make a machine or network resource unavailable to its intended users. Although the means to carry out, motives for, and targets of a DoS attack may vary, it generally consists of efforts to temporarily or indefinitely interrupt or suspend services of a host connected to the Internet.

How to check if your Linux server is under DDOS Attack?

Login to your Linux Server and type the following command:

netstat -anp |grep ‘tcp\|udp’ | awk ‘{print $5}’ | cut -d: -f1 | sort | uniq -c | sort –n

This command will show you the list of IP’s which have logged in is maximum number of connections to your server. It becomes more complex if the attacker use fewer connections with more number of attacking IP’s.

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We can check active connections to the server using the following command:

netstat -n | grep :80 |wc –l

The above command will show the active connections that are open to your server. The result may vary but if it shows connections more than 500, then you will be definitely having problems.

netstat -n | grep :80 | grep SYN |wc –l

If the result of the above command is 100 or above then you are having problems with sync attack.

Once you get an idea of the ip attacking your server, you can easily block it. Fire the following command to block specific IP:

route add ipaddress reject

Fire the following command to check whether that IP is blocked or not:

route -n |grep IPaddress

You can also block a IP with iptables on the server by using the following command.


service iptables restart

service iptables save

After firing the above command, KILL all httpd connection and than restart httpd service by using  following command:

killall -KILL httpd/apache2

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[Updated 12-12-2013]

In order to delete the route entry, fire the following command.

ip route delete ipaddress

[Source :]