Writing Your Own Shell

Shell

[ad#hlinks]

On system boot up, one can see the login screen. We log in to the system using our user name, followed by our password. The login name is looked up in the system password file (usually /etc/passwd). If the login name is found, the password is verified. The encrypted password for a user can be seen in the file /etc/shadow, immediately preceded by the user name and a colon. Once the password is verified, we are logged into the system.

Once we log in, we can see the command shell where we usually enter our commands to execute. The shell, as described by Richard Stevens in his book Advanced Programming in the Unix Environment, is a command-line interpreter that reads user input and execute commands.

This was the entry point for me. One program (our shell) executing another program (what the user types at the prompt). I knew that execve and its family of functions could do this, but never thought about its practical use.
[ad#ad-2]

A note on execve()

Briefly, execve and its family of functions helps to initiate new programs. The family consists of the functions:

  • execl
  • execv
  • execle
  • execve
  • execlp
  • execvp
int execve(const char *filename, char *const argv[], char *const envp[]);

is the prototype as given in the man page for execve. The filename is the complete path of the executable, argv and envp are the array of strings containing argument variables and environment variables respectively.

In fact, the actual system call is sys_execve (for execve function) and other functions in this family are just C wrapper functions around execve. Now, let us write a small program using execve. See listing below:

listing1.c

Compiling and running the a.out for the above program gives the output of /bin/ls command. Now try this. Put a printf statement soon after the execve call and run the code.

I will not go in to the details of wrappers of execve. There are good books, one of which I have already mentioned (from Richard Stevens), which explains the execve family in detail.

[ad#ad-2]

Some basics

Before we start writing our shell, we shall look at the sequence of events that occur, from the point when user types something at the shell to the point when he sees the output of the command that he typed. One would have never guessed that so much processing happens even for listing of files.

When the user hits the ‘Enter’ key after typing “/bin/ls”, the program which runs the command (the shell) forks a new process. This process invokes the execve system call for running “/bin/ls”. The complete path, “/bin/ls” is passed as a parameter to execve along with the command line argument (argv) and environment variables (envp). The system call handler sys_execve checks for existence of the file. If the file exists, then it checks whether it is in the executable file format. Guess why? If the file is in executable file format, the execution context of the current process is altered. Finally, when the system call sys_execve terminates, “/bin/ls” is executed and the user sees the directory listing. Ooh!
[ad#ad-2]

Let’s Start

Had enough of theories? Let us start with some basic features of the command shell. The listing below tries to interpret the ‘Enter’ key being pressed by the user at the command prompt.

listing2.c

This is simple. Something like the mandatory “hello world” program that a programmer writes while learning a new programming language. Whenever user hits the ‘Enter’ key, the command shell appears again. On running this code, if user hits Ctrl+D, the program terminates. This is similar to your default shell. When you hit Ctrl+D, you will log out of the system.

Let us add another feature to interpret a Ctrl+C input also. It can be done simply by registering the signal handler for SIGINT. And what should the signal handler do? Let us see the code in listing 3.

listing3.c

Run the program and hit Ctrl+C. What happens? You will see the command prompt again. Something that we see when we hit Ctrl+C in the shell that we use.

Now try this. Remove the statement fflush(stdout) and run the program. For those who cannot predict the output, the hint is fflush forces the execution of underlying write function for the standard output.

Command Execution

Let us expand the features of our shell to execute some basic commands. Primarily we will read user inputs, check if such a command exists, and execute it.

I am reading the user inputs using getchar(). Every character read is placed in a temporary array. The temporary array will be parsed later to frame the complete command, along with its command line options. Reading characters should go on until the user hits the ‘Enter’ key. This is shown in listing 4.

listing4.c

Now we have the string which consists of characters that the user has typed at our command prompt. Now we have to parse it, to separate the command and the command options. To make it more clear, let us assume that the user types the command

gcc -o hello hello.c

We will then have the command line arguments as

argv[0] = "gcc"
argv[1] = "-o"
argv[2] = "hello"
argv[3] = "hello.c"

Instead of using argv, we will create our own data structure (array of strings) to store command line arguments. The listing below defines the function fill_argv. It takes the user input string as a parameter and parses it to fill my_argv data structure. We distinguish the command and the command line options with intermediate blank spaces (‘ ‘).

listing5.c

The user input string is scanned one character at a time. Characters between the blanks are copied into my_argv data structure. I have limited the number of arguments to 10, an arbitrary decision: we can have more that 10.

Finally we will have the whole user input string in my_argv[0] to my_argv[9]. The command will be my_argv[0] and the command options (if any) will be from my_argv[1] to my_argv[k] where k<9. What next?

After parsing, we have to find out if the command exists. Calls to execve will fail if the command does not exist. Note that the command passed should be the complete path. The environment variable PATH stores the different paths where the binaries could be present. The paths (one or more) are stored in PATH and are separated by a colon. These paths has to be searched for the command.

The search can be avoided by use of execlp or execvp which I am trying to purposely avoid. execlp and execvp do this search automatically.

The listing below defines a function that checks for the existence of the command.

listing6.c

[ad#ad-2]
attach_path function in the listing 6 will be called if its parameter cmd does not have a ‘/’ character. When the command has a ‘/’, it means that the user is specifying a path for the command. So, we have:

if(index(cmd, '/') == NULL) {
	attach_path(cmd);
	.....
}

The function attach_path uses an array of strings, which is initialized with the paths defined by the environment variable PATH. This initialization is given in the listing below:

listing7.c

The above listing shows two functions. The function get_path_string takes the environment variable as a parameter and reads the value for the entry PATH. For example, we have

PATH=/usr/kerberos/bin:/usr/local/bin:/bin:/usr/bin:/usr/X11R6/bin:/home/hiran/bin

The the function uses strstr from the standard library to get the pointer to the beginning of the complete string. This is used by the function insert_path_str_to_search in listing 7 to parse different paths and store them in a variable which is used to determine existence of paths. There are other, more efficient methods for parsing, but for now I could only think of this.

After the function attach_path determines the command’s existence, it invokes execve for executing the command. Note that attach_path copies the complete path with the command. For example, if the user inputs ‘ls’, then attach_path modifies it to ‘/bin/ls’. This string is then passed while calling execve along with the command line arguments (if any) and the environment variables. The listing below shows this:

listing8.c

Here, execve is called in the child process, so that the context of the parent process is retained.

Complete Code and Incompleteness

The listing below is the complete code which I have (inefficiently) written.

listing9.c

Compile and run the code to see [MY_SHELL ]. Try to run some basic commands; it should work. This should also support compiling and running small programs. Do not get surprised if ‘cd’ does not work. This and several other commands are built-in with the shell.

[ad#ad-2]

You can make this shell the default by editing /etc/passwd or using the ‘chsh’ command. The next time you login, you will see [MY_SHELL ] instead of your previous default shell.

Conclusion

The primary idea was to make readers familiar with what Linux does when it executes a command. The code given here does not support all the features that bash, csh and ksh do. Support for ‘Tab’, ‘Page Up/Down’ as seen in bash (but not in ksh) can be implemented. Other features like support for shell programming, modifying environment variables during runtime, etc. are essential. A thorough look at the source code for bash is not an easy task because of the various complexities involved, but would help you develop a full featured command interpreter. Of course, reading the source code is not the complete answer. I am also trying to find other ways, but lack of time does not permit me. Have fun and enjoy……

[ad#ad-2]

  • Thanks for this! I’ve been searching all over the internet for the details.

  • I Too Like the Blog here. Keep up all the work. I too love to blog. This is great everyone sharing opinions 🙂

  • I Too Like the Blog here. Keep up all the work. I too love to blog. This is great everyone sharing opinions 🙂

  • I have some ideas, thank you for sharing, I really like the safety valve.

  • thanks for sharing the info.that is interesting.

  • hey, nice blog…really like it and added to bookmarks. keep up with good work

  • Thanks for making this this really great article. I’ve been checking all the search engines for this general kind of content and it’s been amazingly diffficult to find with any real quality. I will absolutely keep returning for more. Thank You So Much.

  • Kudos for the superb info correct now. I love your written content and will arrive rear in the near future.

  • Thanks this made for intresting reading. I adore your wordpress theme, i keep coming back here and i dont know why. I just genuinely like your web site lol… I recently read something simular to this i think they may of stolen the blog?

  • Hello everyone.

    I truly enjoy this blog, keep up the good work!
    What do you think about my explanations on hypnosis!

  • Amy

    Helpful summary, bookmarked your website for interest to read more!

  • I Too Like the Blog here. Keep up all the work. I too love to blog. This is great everyone sharing opinions 🙂

  • I Too Like the Blog here. Keep up all the work. I too love to blog. This is great everyone sharing opinions 🙂

  • There’s a lot of fascinating stuff on this site, I made lots of summaries on some of the really interesting bits that I hadn’t come across. There is also a whole bunch more about this on Wikipedia, and and at this geekier info site so check that out too. I’m really into it and really interested in finding out more so if any of you reading this might be generous enough to put comments on this thread that would be really appreciated.

  • I was just looking at relevant blog content with regard to the project research when I happened to stumble on yours. Many thanks for this valuable info!

  • Great post. Thanks. I just tag your article to my facebook page.

  • Maybe someone can clarify something for me. I’m just not getting it!

  • I found this information interesting.

  • Happy to see your blog as it is just what I’ve looking for and excited to read all the posts. I am looking forward to another great article from you.

  • Hello, I’m Dream. Thanks for sharing. It’s interesing.

  • Thanks very much for sharing this excellent info! Looking forward to seeintg more posts!

  • Great information, I value all of these opinions. Everyone needs to feel free to express themselves freely 🙂

  • What a comment!! Very informative and also easy to understand. Looking for more such comments!! Do you have a myspace?
    I recommended it on stumbleupon. The only thing that it’s missing is a bit of new design. Nevertheless thank you for this blog.

  • I have heard of the name before, and I intend to use it recently

  • is of interest of scrapbooking kits. I just got into this hobby and really enjoy it.”

  • I quite agree with the upstairs, it is really desirable to use

  • hey there, this might be little offtopic, but i am hosting my site on hostgator and they will suspend my hosting in 4days, so i would like to ask you which hosting do you use or recommend?

  • Awesome, that’s just what I was scanning for! You just spared me alot of digging around

  • Thank you so much for your sharing!

  • I need it very much.where can I download it!

  • Very informative blog post here. I just wanted to stop by and thank you for taking the time out of your very busy day to write this. I’ll be back to read more in the future as well.

  • Good writing here I really really like the way you write your blogs. I will continue to visit your site in the future to read more great blog posts like this one! please keep up the amazing work

  • Thank you for sharing this! I found a few interesting sites here

  • thanks for that wonderfull article. I definately had a good time reading your entry. it’s always nice to see fresh ideas. I will definately be returning to your blog again

  • hey, this might be little offtopic, but i am hosting my site on hostgator and they will suspend my hosting in 4days, so i would like to ask you which hosting do you use or recommend?

  • This text is hugely interesting.

  • What a post!! Very informative also easy to understand. Looking for more such comments!! Do you have a twitter or a facebook?
    I recommended it on stumbleupon. The only thing that it’s missing is a bit of color. Anyway thank you for this blog.

  • Pretty oiroew post. Never thought that it was this straightforward after all. I have spent a great deal of my time searching for someone to jkdhsjghthis subject clearly and you’re the only person that ever did that. I really mcbxvmv it! Keep up the great posts!

  • What a writeup!! Very informative also easy to understand. Looking for more such blogposts!! Do you have a twitter?
    I recommended it on digg. The only thing that it’s missing is a bit of new design. Anyway thank you for this blog.

  • Cool Blog. I was cruising Yahoo looking for new blogs to surf and I landed on yours. I really enjoyed viewing your posts. You have a nice blog. Keep up the great work.

  • How much is shipping to Canada?

  • Reading your site and I like your writing style, bookmarkes and will come back when I am not at work

  • I would like to say, I seriously enjoy your work on this blog and the quality posts you make. These type of post tend to be what keeps me going through the day time. I detected this post right after a great companion of my very own proposed it to me. I do a little blogging and site-building personally and I am always thankful to see others giving high quality info towards community. I will certainly be following and have bookmarked your website to my facebook account for others to view.

  • Your internet site is getting additional and way more well-known appreciate it to web-sites like Facebook and YouTube. I actually learned you on Bing – Appreciate it for the good content!?!

  • Well, I believe that clears up a few questions for me personally. Anyone else think so?

  • Nice post , Thank you for another informative blog , I look forward to reading more in the near future !

  • Well written, novel take on this topic.

  • all right!I will try

  • What a blog post!! Very informative also easy to understand. Looking for more such blog posts!! Do you have a facebook?
    I recommended it on digg. The only thing that it’s missing is a bit of color. Anyway thank you for this blog.

  • Thanks for the Neat article! I found it on Google. Will check back often for other for sure!

  • Thanks for the Awesome article! I found it on Bing. Will check back often for other for sure!

  • I love all the comments here. I am thinking about starting my own blog. I am wondering if it is tough to run your own blog. I certainly love commenting. Thanks Bloggers 🙂

  • Cool. Your blog looks great, and I’m glad i’ve found something here worth adding to my favorites.

  • Just to let you know upon reading yoursite half of it didn’t load for me I’m running win7 and the newest verison of firefox dunno what went wrong.

  • Just wanted to comment and say that I really like your blog layout and the way you write too. It’s very refreshing to see a blogger like you.. keep it up

  • Just wanted to comment and say that I really like your blog layout and the way you write too. It’s very refreshing to see a blogger like you.. keep it up

  • interesting site I most certainly will create this site onto my own twitter i’m hoping

  • thanks for sharing the info.that is interesting.

  • What a blogpost!! Very informative also easy to understand. Looking for more such blog posts!! Do you have a myspace or a facebook?
    I recommended it on digg. The only thing that it’s missing is a bit of color. However thank you for this information.

  • What a write!! Very informative also easy to understand. Looking for more such comments!! Do you have a twitter or a facebook?
    I recommended it on digg. The only thing that it’s missing is a bit of speed, the pictures are appearing slowly. However thank you for this information.

  • First of all ,you have picked a really nice theme . You gave me an idea for a future blog that i plan to create . On top of that ,i trully enjoy most of the posts and your unique point of view. Cheers

  • Awesome post man.. I quite loved it but I have a question for everybody, are you owning difficulties seeing images?

  • Very nice blog,i will be back shortly.thank you

  • Howdy there! I really like your website. If you have some time please check mine. WWW is about german casinos

  • Before I meet your pilot website, I incredible didn’t know something about this subject that I will use in my school task. After I read page by page, I found the significant thing for my initial idea, great article in your webpage, I discover many missing file and data in my book guidance, but you gave me the several options. I am postgraduate college and want to finish my subject; it is hard task (for me). I spent over 2 weeks, just browsing and finding this nice article.

  • Hey, very nice website. I actually came across this on Bing, and I am happy I did. I will definately be coming back here more often. Wish I could add to the conversation and bring a bit more to the table, but am just absorbing as much info as I can at the moment. Thank You

  • Nice discussion here. I want to join with you by giving my comments in your web page. First of all, your page and design of your website is so elegant, it is attractive. Also, in explaining your opinion and other news, frankly you are the best one. I’ve never met other person with special skills in my working environment. By using this comment page, you are great to give me opportunities for announcing some events. Secondly, I’ve checked your website in search engine result page; some of your website pages have ranked very well. Additionally, your topic is relevant with my desired one. Lastly, if you don’t mind, could you join with us as a team, in order to develop website, not only general web page, but also many specific websites we must create for our missions. From time to time, we, I and my team have great position for you to develop that.

  • Hey very nice blog!! Man .. Beautiful .. Amazing .. I will bookmark your blog and take the feeds
    also…

  • Thanks for this post. It is very informative.

  • I wish you all good day, this site is really nice I would always follow this site. Help me a lot of timedata would be btained from this site, or hope to. But I want you to know that this site is really good Thanks a lot for the kind of perfect topic about this topic. It’s good to buy an essay about this good topic. Nice article, very helpful

  • Very cool and very informative!.

  • You need to add a retweet button to your blog. I just tweeted this post, but had to do it manually. Just my $.02 🙂

  • Thanks for this post. It is very informative.

  • The more sites I visit the more I realize that most of them don’t live up to their promise, but this one is different. I love it.

  • For how long have you been achieving this?

  • Your header is a bit wonky by using Chrome, partner.

  • Hey there 🙂 I just wanted to comment your wonderful blog here & say that I really like your blog layout and the way you write too. You make blogging look easy lol. I currently blog too but im not nearly as good as you are. anyways nice writing, cya later

  • Could not enroll in your Feed. Please help?

  • I am extremely impressed with your writing skills and also with the layout on your blog. Is this a paid theme or did you customize it yourself? Either way keep up the nice quality writing, it’s rare to see a nice blog like this one these days.. 🙂

  • Exactly where did you find your theme?? It’s remarkable!

  • I was very content to find this blog.Thank you for having the page! Im sure that it will be extremely popular. It has good and valuable content which is very rare nowadays.

  • Continue the great job guys!

  • Ecstatic i came across this site, will make sure to book mark it so i can stop by regularly.

  • I usually don’t post in websites but your blog drove me to it, interesting work..Amazing

  • Took me time to go through all of the comments, but I truly enjoyed the article. It proved being incredibly helpful to me and I am positive to all of the commenters here! It is generally wonderful when you can not just be informed, but in addition entertained! I am sure you had enjoyment writing this post.

  • The most succinct plus up to date info I stumbled upon about this topic. Sure pleased that I discovered the site by accident. I’ll be signing up for the feed so that I will receive the newest posts. Love the information here.

  • Thanks a lot for write about rather great informations. Your web site is greatI am impressed by the specifics that you have on this blog. It exhibits how properly you understand this topic. Bookmarked this valuable web page, will appear back for much more. You, my friend, awesome! I found just the material I already searched everywhere and just wasn’t able to uncover. What a perfect site. Like this site your internet site is one of my new much-loved.I similar to this knowledge proven and it has given me some type of motivation to possess accomplishment for some reason, so maintain up the decent perform!

  • Hello, this is a really fascinating web blog and ive loved reading several of the articles and posts contained upon the site, sustain the great work and hope to read a lot more exciting articles in the time to come.

  • Maybe someone can clarify something for me. I’m just not getting it!

  • Best Wisheses coat article, Component Supertech Electronic Ltd

  • That is really good reports. We appreciate you expressing that along with all of us!

  • The more sites I visit the more I realize that most of them don’t live up to their promise, but this one is different. I love it.

  • Traffic Mayhem- Actually definitely excellent weblog submit which has received me considering. I by no means looked at this from a stage of look at.

  • Thanks a lot you for this webpage. Thats all I may say. You most surely have created this webpage into something speciel. You clearly know what you are accomplishing, youve included so many corners.kind regards

  • Greetings, this is a genuinely absorbing web blog and I have cherished studying many of the content and posts contained on the web site, keep up the outstanding work and desire to read a good deal more stimulating articles in the future.

  • Great info I recently came across your blog and have been reading along. I thought I would leave my incipient comment. I don’t know what tolet it be knownexcept that I have enjoyed reading. On target blog. I will keep visiting this blog very without exception. Your blog review here z

  • Great article and blog, do you use a custom theme or is this anything I can find elsewhere, it seems really cool so i was just curious.

  • Hi!, I am visiting your site for the second time to see more of your useful insights. I found this an eye opener and felt compelled to com­ment a huge thank you for all your effort. Please continue the great work your doing!

  • Hmmm…I don’t like spam, too.

  • Awesome write-up man.. I very loved it but I have a question for everybody, are you owning problems seeing images?

  • That to your beneficial post and blog I quite love this theme you’ve in which did you get it from, is it custom?

  • Great post and blog, do you use a custom theme or is this anything I can discover elsewhere, it looks quite cool so i was just curious.

  • When I found your page was like wow. Thanks for putting your effort in publishing this tutorial.

  • Hey, very nice website. I actually came across this on Bing, and I am happy I did. I will definately be coming back here more often. Wish I could add to the conversation and bring a bit more to the table, but am just absorbing as much info as I can at the moment. Thank You

  • It’s excellent to see sites with aol and thanks for the share that you’ve given. Commonly, I’m really amazed, but etc… 🙂

  • That is an interesting perspective on the subject. I am not sure that I concur entirely, however I might save this page and reconsider it later in the week.

  • Nothing succeeds like success.

  • Seriously happy i stumbled upon this excellent website, will make sure to book mark it so i can visit regularly.

  • Super-Duper site! I am loving it!! Will come back again – taking you feeds also, Thanks.

  • Hi there, I found your blog via Google while searching for first aid for a heart attack and your post
    looks very interesting for me.

  • Nice find.I am impressed-you saved my time and helped me so much.

  • Me visit you site http://blog.dewendra.com.np/?p=100 man times, I want to say thank you for assiting with me English.

  • Thanks for this interesting information.

  • This information is basically good and I’ll say will at all times be helpful if we strive it danger free. So when you can again it up. That can really assist us all.

  • I can see that you are an expert at your field! I am launching a website soon, and your information will be very useful for me.. Thanks for all your help and wishing you all the success in your business.

  • Hey Blogger,When you write some blogs and share with us,that is a hard work for you but share makes you
    happly right?
    good luck and cheers!

  • This blog is awesome it’s got all the points i sought after to talk about, it has fulfilled my knowledge, i just appreciated this blog and i need to subscribe so can you please tell whilst your weblog gets up to date and what is the procedure to subscribe in details.

  • Hi, the place did you get this info can you please assist this with some proof or you may say some good reference as I and others will actually appreciate. This data is actually good and I will say will always be useful if we try it risk free. So when you can again it up. That may actually assist us all. And this may deliver some good reputation to you.

  • Hello!, Very interest angle, we were talking about the same thing at work and found your site very stimulating. So just had to com­ment a huge thank you for all your effort. Please keep up the great work your doing!

  • I mistyped this website and luckily I found it again. presently am at my university I added this to favorites so that I can re-read it later regards

  • As a Newbie, I am always searching online for articles that can help me. Thank you

  • Very nice post. I just stopped by by your website and wanted to say that I have truly enjoyed checking your posts. Any way, I’ll be subscribing to your feed and also I’m hoping you post again soon!

  • Super-Duper site! I am loving it!! Will come back again – taking you feeds also, Thanks.

  • This is an amazing article dude. Thanks for sharing! But I’m experiencing problem with your rss feed. Unable to subscribe to it. Is there anyone having identical RSS feed trouble?

  • Easier on turns!

  • I have additional queries. Is it best to ask here or should I ask on email? Hope its not inconvenient, thanks!

  • I agree with your thoughts here and I really love your blog! I’ve bookmarked it so that I can come back & read more in the future.

  • I apologise, but, in my opinion, you are mistaken. I suggest it to discuss. Write to me in PM.

  • I have read a few of the articles on your website now, and I really like your style of blogging. Thanks for taking the time to discuss this, I feel strongly about it and love learning more on this topic. If possible, as you gain expertise, would you mind updating your blog with more information? It is extremely helpful for me.

  • I’ve learnt something new!

  • I got your web link, thanks. It seems to be down or not working. Does anyone have a backup link or mirror? Cool that would help out.

  • best website, great information! web hosting keep it alive!

  • Hi. I just noticed that your blog looks like it has a few code errors at the very top of your site’s page. I’m not sure if everybody is getting this same bugginess when browsing your blog? I am employing a totally different browser than most people, referred to as Opera, so that is what might be causing it? I just wanted to make sure you know. Thanks for posting some great postings and I’ll try to return back with a completely different browser to check things out!

  • hi website owner, I discovered your blog from bing and browse through a few of your various other content. They are incredible. Please keep them coming. Greets,

  • wow, what a fantastic article, keep up the great work, i have been to different blogs and this is really unique.

  • Excellent blog post.. however I did have some difficulty understanding your final paragraph. Could you try to clarify what you mean?

  • You ought to seriously think about working on growing this blog into a serious voice in this market. You obviously have a good knowledge of the areas all of us are searching for on this website anyways and you could potentially even earn a dollar or three from some advertising. I would explore following recent news and raising the volume of blog posts you make and I bet you’d start earning some great traffic in the near future. Just an idea, good luck in whatever you do!

  • Is it my net browser or the internet website, but I can only see fifty percent the post. How should I response this?

  • As a Newbie, I am constantly searching for on-line for posts that will help me. Give gives thanks you It was fascinating.

  • wonderful blog good info congrats. To get the best forex robot info click on the link

  • I just additional you to definitely my Search engines News Reader.

  • Hi, found your website by good fortune in the early hours, but I’m please that I did! As well as being full of contributors and also very easy to understand unlike scores that I come across! (My site, is a review of hypnotherapy downloads). I was trying to work out what menu layout you had implemented, can somone give me an idea? The site I’ve made is a review site for hypnotherapy downloads. I’ve got a similar layout on my website, which is a site looking at hypnotherapy downloads, – yet somehow it seems to load swifter here, although this site appear to have much more content. Have you been employing any widgets that have increased speed? : Sorry to go on, but lastly to say, I appreciate such a great site and it’s obviously a excellent inspiration for my humble evaluation blog of hypnotherapy downloads. I’ll be looking to enhance my own blog attempt. I definitely will visit your brilliant site as often as I can.

  • Hi, thank you a lot for the great article. I had wanted to sign up to your feed. However unfortunately it does not seem to be working for me. Anyone having this difficulty? I’ll visit in a bit to check. Anyways thank you again for your good read.

  • I have to say from the bottom of my heart, you done well with this post, very useful stuff.

  • I just don’t understand the last two paragraphes, can anybody help?

  • Revealing and Enjoyable to read! I’ve added your blog to my rss reader. Keep on posting!

  • Hi, how are you? because i so enjoy your great blog, i woudl feel honored to post a short review about your incredible wordpress blog on my little would you say yes?

  • At this point I have nice collection of Black Hat SEO tools, like proxy manager and some proprietary tools that I paid a seo software programmer to make for me. Overall I am pretty happy with my collection and my SEO clients love me!

  • Hi admin! I have a small request. I was just searching for some info on this topic you wrote and found this blog. Some really awesome stuff you got here, can I please link to this post on my new website I am currently working on? It would be great :). I will check back again later to see how you responded. Thanks, Criss Scott .

  • This is my first time visiting your blog. I found so many interesting ideas in your blog especially on the comments. I guess I am not the only one having all the fun here, keep up the good work. Thanks.

  • hi buddy, I recently came across your website from twitter and browse many of your several other content. They are stunning. Pls continue this great work! Greets,

  • Can I achieve results immediately or will it take a while to show up?

  • Hey blogger,search your blog from google,great blog,keep writting.promzzz

  • Hei, admin, I find that your site does not work fine, I use FireFox 3.6.

  • Would you pleasee include a lot more information on this field??? BTW your web site is first-class. Sincerely..

  • Yeh i agree… but does everyone else?

  • Sorry for the huge review, but I’m really loving the new Zune, and hope this, as well as the excellent reviews some other people have written, will help you decide if it’s the right choice for you.

  • Amazing freakin blog here. I almost cried while reading it!

  • Thank you so much for sharing all of the great info! I am looking forward to seeintg more!

  • thanks for this article

  • “No, that’s not grounds for getting fired. I mean, the bank should have checked already before they hired you, and apparently they didn’t have a problem with it.”

  • The wolf picks up the ass’s fleas by moonlight. – Spanish Proverb

  • This was a nice article to read, thank you for sharing it.

  • “EVERY banks use chex system. You need to contact the bank that you overdrawn to get this right, otherwise you might run into trouble with WaMu in the near future. Which might cause you more problem for yourself as well.”

  • Great writing! You might want to follow up on this topic?!?

    -Kind regards,
    Bud

  • Hey, been recently keeping with all your writing for a long time, though never commented on a single thing before. Thought I would personally give my opinion. I think this content you submitted pretty educational. There initially were a few items which weren’t straightforward, yet all around, the article was in fact very good — not that you need me personally suggesting exactly what you currently know, hehe. Regardless, continue the good work!

  • TRULLY interesting Blog, Bro! even though this was not what i was looking for (I am on thesearch for full-length slips as a surprise gift for my wife )… I certainly plan on visiting again!.By the way what’s is the most sexy night Gown or slip anybody can suggest ? thanks a lot and i will bookmark your article : PHP, MySQL, .NET, IIS, Networking, and Many More… » Blog Archive » Writing Your Own Shell…

  • Wonderful blog! I truly love how it’s easy on my eyes and the info are well written. I am wondering how I may be notified whenever a new post has been made. I have subscribed to your rss feed which must do the trick! Have a nice day!

  • Fantastic blog! I truly love how it’s easy on my eyes and also the facts are well written. I am wondering how I can be notified whenever a new post has been made. I have subscribed to your rss feed which should do the trick! Have a nice day!

  • Pretty Informational blog im going to add you to my Blog Network

  • hi admin, I recently uncovered this website from cuil.com and browse several of your many other posts. They are amazing. Pleasee continue this great work!!!! Regards,

  • Hi, been recently following all your posting on the internet, yet never commented a single thing before. Reckoned I would personally post something. I found this content you wrote highly instructive. There were a few details which were not straightforward, but on the whole, the artilce was in fact goof — not that you need me telling you exactly what you realize, lol. Anyways, keep it up!

  • Interesting article. Were did you got all the information from?

  • Hello, been recently following all your writing on the internet, though never ever commented on a single thing before. Reckoned I would personally give my opinion. I think this article you composed extremely instructive. There were just a few ideas which weren’t very clear, yet by and large, the write-up was a good one — not that you require me letting you know just what you realize, : ). Anyhow, continue the good work!

  • “good luch most banks do — only thing i can think of is just phone them and ask!!!”

  • Thank you so much for writing all of the great content! Looking forward to reading more posts.

  • Way to focus and straight to your point, i love it. Keep up the work people. Dont let anyone stop us bloggers.

  • I normally don’t position in Websites but your world wide web log forced me to, impressive exercising… Gorgeous …

  • Wow, amazing blog layout! How long have you been blogging for? you make blogging look easy.

  • Took me time to read all the comments, but I really enjoyed the article. It proved to be Very helpful to me and I am sure to all the commenters here! It’s always nice when you can not only be informed, but also entertained!

  • I’ve been visiting your blog for a while now and I always find a gem in your new posts. Thanks for sharing.

  • Way to focus and straight to your point, i love it. Keep up the work people. Dont let anyone stop us bloggers.

  • hi .. nice posting ..

  • I don’t usually reply to posts but I will in this case, great info…I will bookmark your site. Keep up the good work!

  • Thanks so much !

  • Your site has helped me a lot to bring back more confidence in myself. Thanks! Ive recommended it to my friends as well.

  • Walter is the greatest 🙂

    Roman

  • The well written summary assited me very much! Saved the blog, extremely excellent topics just about everywhere that I read here! I really like the info, thank you.

  • Good thorough ideas here.I’d like to recommend checking out a lot around the idea of graphic bomb. What exactly are you looking for though?

  • Very inspiring. ty for your post!!!

  • Thank you for making the sincere attempt to divulge this. I feel very strong about it and would like to read more. If it’s allright, as you gain more in depth knowledge, would you mind writing more articles similar to this one with more information? It would be very helpful and useful for me and my co-workers.

  • Great blog!! You should start many more. I love all the info provided. I will stay tuned 🙂

  • Interesting layout on your blog. I really enjoyed reading it and also I will be back to read more in the future.

  • I shared your words in my twitter account, i like it. Theme rather popular in my friends.

  • I differ with most folks right here; since I discovered this blog publish I could not cease until I used to be done, even though it wasn’t just what I had been looking for, was indeed an ideal learn though. I’ll instantaneously take your RSS feed to keep up knowledgeable of any updates.

  • Very educating summary, bookmarked your blog with hopes to read more!

  • Hrmm that was weird, my comment got eaten. Anyway I wanted to say that it’s nice to know that someone else also mentioned this as I had trouble finding the same info elsewhere. This was the first place that told me the answer. Thanks.

  • bathroom vanities that are made of wood looks elegant and stylish;”`

  • Know whether the site is opened too late.

  • I agree with your post absolutely and I am now interested in reading some more of your posts on your blog and see what you have to say. Do you mind if I tweet your blog post out to my followers on twitter? I think they would also enjoy the blog post. Thanks.

  • Thank you very much for posting all of the awesome content! Looking forward to seeintg more posts!

  • Ask a traffic warden buddy!……He’ll give you the right directions!…..

  • im-visaged warfare hath smooth’d his sun of moun

  • A Quite easy to follow article . Every time i read your blog i see a different view. In addtition , as a fresh developer, i have to say that the structure of your website is nice . Could you reply with the name of the template? . I find it hard to choose among all these themes and widgets.
    Thank you.

  • Hello, this is a really fascinating web blog and ive loved reading several of the articles and posts contained upon the site, sustain the great work and hope to read a lot more exciting articles in the time to come.

  • Informative blog, saved your website for hopes to see more!

  • Hi, I check up on your blog a few times a week.. just wondering if you have any issues with spam posts. I do on my web log.. What plugin do you use to get rid of it?

  • Amazing write up, bookmarked the blog for interest to read more!

  • forever updated. That was exactly what I needed to read today. Good post! I am also going to write a blog post about this… thanks Thanks for the article. Information was clear and very detailed. This article is very good.

  • there is obviously alot to know about this, I think you made some good points also

  • Very nice and informative article. Thanks for the quality content and I hope you update your blog frequently as I`m interested in this topic. I`ve already bookmarked this article. Thanx!

  • Why are you looking to look at traffic on another site? That seems kinda weird to me.

  • You ought to certainly think about working on growing this blog into a major authority in this market. You obviously have a grasp handle of the topics everyone is looking for on this site anyways and you could certainly even earn a buck or two off of some advertising. I would explore following recent topics and raising the amount of write ups you put up and I guarantee you’d begin seeing some amazing targeted traffic in the near future. Just a thought, good luck in whatever you do!

  • Your blog looks nice. You definitely know how to write. Maybe you could use more colours?Just a suggestion

  • Hello, this is a really fascinating web blog and ive loved reading several of the articles and posts contained upon the site, sustain the great work and hope to read a lot more exciting articles in the time to come.

  • The best thing of the internet is that i usually come across with things that i do not know about but at the same time interesting.

  • could have included a link here and we could have checked it out. it’s gonna be alot of little things that cause it not any one major advertisement. Anytime you write anything anywhere or whenever you get a chance you need to open your mouth about it. Once people start looking at the content and enjoying it they will start to link to it also

  • I use autosurfs like http://www.topsurfing.net I have gotten tons of traffic to my site and i saw with just a little bit of time that I started making more and more each day! Also it helps with SEO.

  • your works are really improving traffic then you can do some social media service, social bookmarking and press release distribution are very powerful for increase traffic to your website

  • Hello! Ive checked on your site..why not try to put on links portion on your site..I do link building, search engine optimization for lots of online business of my client to increase traffic on the sites..you need the best marketing strategy that would save time and effort.. just email me ill be willing to help..check out my agents of value..Good Luck!

  • For business site requirements, there are cases when you need the services of a PHP programmer. The good thing is that you can now avail of the service online.

  • I just wanted to drop by and say taht I’m greatful for taking the time out of your really active day to write this. I shallbe back to read more in the future as well..berore long

  • Really compeling information, thanks!

  • Excellent indeed. I have been looking for this information.

  • Nice idea, please explain more!

  • I’d like to thank you for the efforts you have made writing this post. This has been enlightening for me. I’ve passed this on to one of my friends.

  • seo

    I think this is very important. Thanks a lot.

  • Been researching this a lot of the day this was worth finding out about thanks.

  • seo

    I agree with you totally. Please write more.

  • it is a really nice point of view. I usually meet people who rather say what they suppose others want to hear. Good and well written! I will come back to your site for sure!

  • would like to drop a line of text and say a lot of thanksfor this and please don’t stop writing.

  • Pretty cool article, I prefer it very much, I will be sure sharing this with my friends and family on facebook, sustain the nice work.

  • thanks a lot for sharing these instructive

  • Excellent indeed. I have been looking for this information.

  • I gotta favorite this site it seems very useful very useful

  • Excellent indeed. I have been looking for this information.

  • Thanks, I’ve enjoyed reading this article!

  • Hello.This article was really interesting, especially because I was searching for thoughts on this topic last Tuesday.

  • I have bookmarked this post because I discovered it notable. I might be very interested to hear more news on this. Thank you!

  • Hello, I really like your blog design. Did you make it yourself?

  • Really like your approach. No nonsense. Don’t have time for nonsense. You’re providing information I can use at this moment, and fixin’ to. Thanks!

  • Pingback: Yosho()

  • Pingback: Yoshol()

  • There is apparently a bunch to realize about this. I suppose you made some nice points in features also.